Feudalism was a system of land ownership and duties. Under feudalism, the nobility owned most of the land and charged the peasants who farmed it a variety of fees (in addition to their rent). While there were many local differences in how these fees were charged, they often included requiring the peasant to work on the lord’s land for several days each year. Feudalism ended in different parts of Europe at different times, generally in response to changes in those areas’ political and economic situation. In some cases, it was due to an agricultural surplus that led to more trade (and less need for extra labor) or because soil exhaustion reduced agricultural production. Other areas saw political changes like new monarchies or new governments (like France’s transition from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy) that changed how power worked in society. In other places, feudalism ended because of plague like the Black Death that killed off so many people that it caused significant economic disruption which made the old feudal relationships unworkable.
The Great Famine, 1315-1322
The Great Famine was a period of famine, disease, and death in Europe between 1315 and 1322. It was caused by a combination of war, overpopulation, and bad weather (the Great Famine of 1315–1322). The famine occurred during the reign of Edward II (1307–1327), who faced challenges in England while fighting in Scotland. He also had trouble controlling his son Edward III when he became king after Edward II’s death.
The Black Death and the Peasants Revolt of 1381
The Black Death was a plague that killed millions of Europeans in the mid-14th century. The plague was caused by a bacteria called Yersinia pestis, which spread from Asia to Europe in the form of fleas on rats. It originated in China and arrived in Italy via merchant ships. From there, it spread throughout Europe via trade routes such as those between Venice and Constantinople or through armies that marched through Europe during the Hundred Years’ War.
In 1347, when it first hit Europe at its height, it killed 40% of people who were infected. The Black Death continued to strike intermittently until around 1350—and during this period also affected Asia and Africa—but then it died down somewhat before returning again in 1361–1362 as another large outbreak known as the “second plague pandemic.” While these outbreaks were fewer overall than in 1347–1350s,’ they still had devastating effects on European society
The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
The Hundred Years War was fought between England and France over which nation would control France. It began when Edward III of England invaded France in 1337. The war lasted for 100 years until 1453 when Henry VI of England was crowned king of both England and France at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
Feudalism ended because of increased trade in Europe, a plague called the Black Death, and a change in the church’s power.
Feudalism ended in Europe because of a plague called the Black Death and increased trade in Europe. The plague killed millions of people and led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, which was followed by the end of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
Feudalism was an important way of life in Europe during the Middle Ages, but eventually it gave way to other social and economic systems. Trade and a changing economy changed how people saw themselves and their relationships with others, while the Black Death and other plagues took their toll on local populations. War also contributed to this change as soldiers learned new skills that made them more powerful than ever before. Finally, power shifted away from feudal lords thanks to changes within religious institutions like the Catholic Church